octopus mouth anatomy

You may not notice unless you take a very good look at the body of these creatures that they have gills. [22], Most young octopuses hatch as paralarvae and are planktonic for weeks to months, depending on the species and water temperature.

[87] Some species of octopus can crawl out of the water briefly, which they may do between tide pools while hunting crustaceans or gastropods or to escape predators. [33], Octopuses are gonochoric and have a single, posteriorly-located gonad which is associated with the coelom. [84] When in no hurry, they usually crawl on either solid or soft surfaces. 1987. Captive animals have been found to be more susceptible to pathogens than wild ones. [86] This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a potential predator without being recognised. Several arms are extended forwards, some of the suckers adhere to the substrate and the animal hauls itself forwards with its powerful arm muscles, while other arms may push rather than pull. The Hawaiian day octopus (Octopus cyanea) lives on coral reefs; argonauts drift in pelagic waters. The siphon is used both for respiration and for locomotion, by expelling a jet of water. [119] The incirrate octopuses (the majority of species) lack the cirri and paired swimming fins of the cirrates. The beak, buccal mass and the tip of the siphon are also external. The yolk is gradually absorbed as the embryo develops. In 1856 the Danish zoologist Japetus Steenstrup demonstrated that it is used to transfer sperm, and only rarely detaches. [169] In 2017 a German company made an arm with a soft pneumatically controlled silicone gripper fitted with two rows of suckers. As it moves the eight arms move along behind it. It was described in 1829 by the French zoologist Georges Cuvier, who supposed it to be a parasitic worm, naming it as a new species, Hectocotylus octopodis. [130] The terrifyingly powerful Gorgon of Greek mythology has been thought to have been inspired by the octopus or squid, the octopus itself representing the severed head of Medusa, the beak as the protruding tongue and fangs, and its tentacles as the snakes. This is likely the result of abundant food supplies combined with limited den sites. It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. They have to be in bite-sized pieces to go through the esophagus. [94][103], Aside from humans, octopuses may be preyed on by fishes, seabirds, sea otters, pinnipeds, cetaceans, and other cephalopods. [164] Their problem-solving skills, along with their mobility and lack of rigid structure enable them to escape from supposedly secure tanks in laboratories and public aquariums.

The octopus carries the shells underneath it with two arms, and progresses with an ungainly gait supported by its remaining arms held rigid. Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. They are often seen walking around at a leisurely pace. [102], Octopuses can create distracting patterns with waves of dark coloration across the body, a display known as the "passing cloud". The amount of ink depends on the species of Octopus and the overall size of it. Some species are adapted to the cold, ocean depths. They have a very hard beak on the mouth which you have to look very carefully at the head to find due to the fact that it blends in so well. [58] Cirrate octopuses lack the ink sac. An autonomic response keeps the octopus's eyes oriented so that the pupil is always horizontal. Linnaeus included it in the first edition of his 1735 Systema Naturae. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. [91][92][93][94] Maze and problem-solving experiments have shown evidence of a memory system that can store both short- and long-term memory. [33] In the deep-sea genus Stauroteuthis, some of the muscle cells that control the suckers in most species have been replaced with photophores which are believed to fool prey by directing them towards the mouth, making them one of the few bioluminescent octopuses. Young octopuses learn nothing from their parents, as adults provide no parental care beyond tending to their eggs until the young octopuses hatch. The foot has evolved into a set of flexible, prehensile appendages, known as "arms", that surround the mouth and are attached to each other near their base by a webbed structure. [146], All species are venomous, but only blue-ringed octopuses have venom that is lethal to humans. [104] Octopuses typically hide or disguise themselves by camouflage and mimicry; some have conspicuous warning coloration (aposematism) or deimatic behaviour. The venom appears to be able to penetrate the skin without a puncture, given prolonged contact. It is black and looks like the beak of a parrot. Fleshy papillae or cirri are found along the bottom of the arms, and the eyes are more developed. [120], Cephalopods have existed for 500 million years and octopus ancestors were in the Carboniferous seas 300 million years ago. The haemocytes play an important role in the recognition and elimination of foreign bodies and wound repair. Octopus is an animal that is deaf. [124][125][126] The vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis) also lacks tentacles but has sensory filaments. In most species, the male uses a specially adapted arm to deliver a bundle of sperm directly into the female's mantle cavity, after which he becomes senescent and dies, while the female deposits fertilised eggs in a den and cares for them until they hatch, after which she also dies. This is possible due to the fact that they don’t have any skeleton to them. [63]:74 The female aerates the eggs and keeps them clean; if left untended, many eggs will not hatch. From there they go into the brain and then routed through the digestive tract and into the stomach. The arms are joined at their bases by a web of tissue known as the skirt, at the centre of which lies the mouth.

The tract consists of a crop, where the food is stored; a stomach, where food is ground down; a caecum where the now sludgy food is sorted into fluids and particles and which plays an important role in absorption; the digestive gland, where liver cells break down and absorb the fluid and become "brown bodies"; and the intestine, where the accumulated waste is turned into faecal ropes by secretions and blown out of the funnel via the rectum. Most of us are fascinated by the overall anatomy of the Octopus. [75] The larger Pacific striped octopus however is social, living in groups of up to 40 individuals that share dens. The ingress of water is achieved by contraction of radial muscles in the mantle wall, and flapper valves shut when strong circular muscles force the water out through the siphon.


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